Java (произносится «Джава») — объектно-ориентированный язык программирования, разрабатываемый компанией Sun Microsystems с 1991 года и официально выпущенный 23 мая 1995 года.
Изначально новый язык программирования назывался Oak (James Gosling) и разрабатывался для бытовой электроники, но впоследствии был переименован в Java и стал использоваться для написания апплетов, приложений и серверного программного обеспечения.
Программы на Java могут быть транслированы в байт-код, выполняемый на виртуальной джава-машине (JVM) — программе, обрабатывающей байтовый код и передающей инструкции оборудованию, как интерпретатор,
но с тем отличием, что байтовый код в отличие от текста обрабатывается
значительно быстрее. Достоинство подобного способа выполнения программ
— в полной независимости байт-кода от ОС и оборудования, что позволяет выполнять Java приложения на любом устройстве, которое поддерживает виртуальную машину.
Другой важной особенностью технологии Java
является гибкая система безопасности, благодаря тому, что исполнение
программы полностью контролируется виртуальной машиной. Любые операции,
которые превышают установленные полномочия программы (например, попытка
несанкционированного доступа к данным или соединения с другим
компьютером) вызывают немедленное прерывание. Это позволяет
пользователям загружать программы, написанные на Java, на их
компьютеры (или другие устройства, например, мобильные телефоны) из
неизвестных источников, при этом не опасаясь заражения вирусами,
пропажи ценной информации, и т. п.
Часто к недостаткам
этого подхода относят то, что исполнение байт-кода виртуальной машиной
может снижать производительность программ и алгоритмов, реализованных
на языке Java. Данное утверждение справедливо для первых версий виртуальной машины Java,
однако в последнее время оно практически потеряло актуальность. Этому
способствовал ряд усовершенствований: применение технологии JITs (Just-In-Time compiler),
позволяющей переводить байт-код в машинный код во время исполнения
программы с возможностью сохранения версий класса в машинном коде,
широкое использование native-кода в стандартных библиотеках, а также
аппаратные средства, обеспечивающие ускоренную обработку байт-кода
(например, технология Jazelle, поддерживаемая некоторыми процессорами фирмы ARM).
Внутри Java существуют 3 основных семейства технологий:
J2EE или Java EE (начиная с v1.5) — Java Enterprise Editon, для создания программного обеспечения уровня предприятия;
J2SE или Java SE (начиная с v1.5) — Java Standard Editon, для создания пользовательских приложений, в первую очередь — для настольных систем;
J2ME, Java ME или Java Micro Edition,
для использования в устройствах, ограниченных по вычислительной
мощности, в том числе мобильных телефонах, PDA, встроенных системах
релизом является версия 1.6, в которой было произведено улучшение
системы безопасности, улучшение поддержки XML и скриптового языка Mozilla Rhino,
улучшена интеграция с рабочим столом, добавлены некоторые новые
возможности в создании графических интерфейсов. Прежняя версия JVM от Microsoft (аналог SUN JVM v.1.1.3) во многом отступает от стандартов языка, предложенных Sun Microsystems, с целью проприетарной поддержки платформы Windows. Впоследствии это явилось поводом для судебных исков со стороны Sun Microsystems к Microsoft.
В настоящее время между двумя компаниями достигнуты договорённости
вплоть до снятия взаимных судебных претензий и произведено взаимное
кросс-лицензирование технологий. По версии Microsoft будет поддерживаться спецификация MS-J# соответствующая спецификации
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The first two "Kung Fu Panda" films enjoyed great success in the Chinese market, with the second film taking in 470 million yuan at the box office.
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